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Boys are lagging in schools: has feminization gone too far?

Guest author Paul Bennett discusses the divisive issue of gender and pedagogy

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Why are boys lagging behind girls in today's schools? A couple of weeks ago, The Toronto Globe and Mail published a whole series of in-depth articles entitled "Failing Boys" and focusing on the so-called "boy problem" in our schools and in the wider North American society.


How time has changed in education. As recently as 1998, the popular press was full of stories about schools short-changing girls and residual examples of gender bias in our supposedly sanitized, politically-correct textbooks. There is definitely a new gender gap in education: in Canada and North America, boys now rank behind girls on nearly every measure of academic achievement and young men are gradually being superceded in universities and the professions.

Can the "feminization" of educators and teaching practices be affecting boys' achievement in school?
Can the "feminization" of educators and teaching practices be affecting boys' achievement in school? St. Michael's College School. PHOTO BY: Toby Asmoucha.

The "Boy Problem" has crept up on us in schools. But the basic facts can no longer be ignored:

Searching for the root cause leads us in many different directions, including the instruction of phonics as the Our Kids Blog previously discussed. In a fine overview piece (October 16, 2010), Education Reporter Kate Hammer identified five key factors: the feminization of education, the appeal of video games, the boy code of behaviour, developmental differences, and the lack of positive role models. The most contentious of these is "feminization" because it raises fundamental questions about the unintended consequences of one of the most important social movements of the 1960s and 70s.

Talking about the possible feminization of education has been frowned upon until recently, at least inside the public education system. It's already a raging debate in Western Europe where the "feminized pedagogy" is a divisive political issue and scholars openly debate whether "feminization" has led to a "softer" curriculum less suited to boys than girls.

Recently, I attended the Biennial Canadian History of Education Conference (Toronto, October 21-24, 2010) where Greetje Timmerman of the University of Groningen gave a fascinating academic paper on the subject. The paper, entitled "Tough or Soft?: The Invention of Feminine Pedagogy as a Cause for Educational Crisis," raised a few eyebrows.

Progressive educational philosophies, rooted in the writings of Rousseau, Herbart, Froebel and Dewey, continue to exert a powerful influence in modern education. It has resulted in "child-centred education" where teachers strive to make schoolwork not only relevant, but sensitive to the interests of children. Instead of challenging pupils to master content, they simply entertain (i.e., try to make learning interesting or stimulating).

Educational reformers seeking higher standards have termed this approach "soft pedagogy" and contend that it has been furthered by the feminization of the teaching ranks, especially in the Western World. Pupils, they say, are no longer trained to have the strength of will to do the hard and uninteresting work of life. They are left by the school weak and flabby, demanding continual entertainment and capable of doing only that which appeals to their inclinations.

In Canada, the best examples can be found in High School English classrooms. English literature teachers, in particular, are often accused of loading their course reading lists with "women's books" by the Bronte sisters, Margaret Atwood, Carol Shields, and Lucy Maud Montgomery.

In its 2009 report, the Ontario Education Quality and Accountability Office noted that boys are not reading as much outside of class, with those reading 3+ hours per week dropping by 4 percentage points to only 32 percent. While in class, the mostly female teacher force generally find today's adolescent boys unruly, tuned-out, or inclined to skip heavy reading classes.

It's time to ask a few uncomfortable questions: How has the feminization of the teaching profession impacted upon the education of boys? Do new fashion teaching methods such as pair-and-share, cooperative learning, and other "soft" pedagogies work to the disadvantage of boys?

Even though "feminine" or "soft" pedagogy is a serious public issue in Europe, here in Canada and the U.S. raising the matter remains an educational taboo. When we can discuss it freely and openly, then we will be discussing another "elephant in the classroom."

—Paul W. Bennett
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  • Wellandport, Ontario
  • 5 to 12 Boys
  • $53,965 to $57,965

Robert Land Academy is a private military-themed boarding school (Gr 5-12) helping boys to achieve their potential and gain admission to post-secondary programs.

  • Boarding
  • Traditional
Robert Land Academy 53965 MiddleSchools HighSchools Boarding Boys
  • Toronto, Ontario
    St Clair Ave W/Avenue Rd
  • SK to 12 Boys
  • $33,300 to $61,860

Located in the heart of Toronto, Upper Canada College is the oldest independent boys' school in Ontario. Our IB graduates are highly regarded by top universities and post-secondary institutions worldwide.

  • Day/Boarding
  • Liberal Arts
  • International Baccalaureate
Upper Canada College 33300 Kindergarten Elementary MiddleSchools HighSchools Day Boarding Boys
  • Toronto, Ontario
    Bayview Avenue/Lawrence Avenue East
  • 3 to 12 Boys
  • $34,150

Crescent School is a Toronto independent day school for boys in Grades 3 to 12. Our learning environment develops students' characters through academics, arts, athletics, business, outreach and robotics.

  • Day
  • Traditional
Crescent School 34150 MiddleSchools HighSchools Day Boys
  • Toronto, Ontario
    Dufferin AVenue/401 Highway
  • JK to 8 Boys
  • $30,400

The Sterling Hall School is a leading independent school for boys, JK to Grade 8. We understand how boys learn best and we support each boy in his learning journey.

  • Day
  • Progressive
The Sterling Hall School 30400 Kindergarten Elementary MiddleSchools Day Boys
  • Westmount, Quebec
  • K to 11 Boys
  • $19,880 to $25,760

Selwyn House School provides a well-rounded education of exceptional depth and scope for boys from Kindergarten to Grade 11. It is located in Westmount, Quebec.

  • Day
  • Liberal Arts
Selwyn House School 19880 Kindergarten Elementary MiddleSchools HighSchools Day Boys
  • Toronto, Ontario
    York Mills Road/Don Mills Road
  • JK to 8 Boys
  • $17,400 to $21,300

Northmount School offers an enriched curriculum in Catholic education from junior kindergarten to grade eight in Toronto. Its average class size is eight to 15 students.

  • Day
  • Liberal Arts
Northmount School 17400 Kindergarten Elementary MiddleSchools Day Boys
  • Beamsville, Ontario
  • 9 to 12 Boys/Coed
  • $10,300 to $40,400

Great Lakes Christian High School offers programs for grades nine through 12 in Beamsville. It accepts day and boarding students.

  • Boarding/Day/Homestay
  • Liberal Arts
Great Lakes Christian High School 10300 HighSchools Boarding Day Homestay Boarding Boys Coed
  • Harrow, Ontario
    Concessions Rd 6 S/Hwy 18
  • 1 to 8 Boys
  • $8,500 to $29,000

St. Peter's ACHS College School in Amherstburg, Ont. is a day/residency school for boys grades 1-8 who love Sports and the Outdoors. Tuition starts at $8,900. and is a member of OFIS. We put "FUN" back into learning.

  • Day/Boarding
  • Traditional
  • Montessori
St. Peter's ACHS College School 8500 Elementary MiddleSchools Day Boarding Boys
  • Toronto, Ontario
    Duplex Ave/St Clements Ave
  • PS to 2 Boys/Coed
  • $8,500 to $20,500

St. Clement's Early Learning School 70 St. Clements Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4R 1H2 St. Clement’s Early Learning School provides a child with an opportunity for growth in all areas of his or her development.

  • Day
  • Progressive
St. Clement's Early Learning School 8500 Preschool Kindergarten Elementary Day Day Boys Coed
  • Oakville, Ontario
  • JK to 8 Boys
  • $21,950 to $25,950

Linbrook School is Oakville's only all-boys school. This independent, not-for-profit day school fosters and supports each individual students special skills as an athlete, musician, performer, artist, writer or humanitarian.

  • Day
  • Traditional
Linbrook School 21950 Kindergarten Elementary MiddleSchools Day Boys
  • Rindge, New Hampshire(USA)
    Deer Run Ln/Hampshire Rd
  • 3 to 12 Boys
  • US $61,500

A friendly, active boarding school for bright boys who have good intentions but who may be too impulsive, intense, or bothersome for other schools and whose intellectual interests may separate them from their peers.

  • Boarding
  • Liberal Arts
Hampshire Country School 61500 MiddleSchools HighSchools Boarding Boys
  • Calgary, Alberta
    17th Ave SW/Richmond Road SW
  • K to 9 Boys
  • $8,000 to $13,000

North Point School for Boys is a Kindergarten to Grade 9 independent school in which curious and energetic boys are challenged and motivated, developing into young men of integrity with a genuine love of learning.

  • Day
  • Progressive
North Point School For Boys 8000 Kindergarten Elementary MiddleSchools HighSchools Day Boys
  • Toronto, Ontario
    Bathurst St/Dupont St
  • 3 to 12 Boys
  • $32,840

RSGC is an urban day school that combines academic excellence with a stimulating and supportive environment. Our mission is to challenge and inspire each boy to become the best version of himself.

  • Day
  • Progressive
Royal St. George's College 32840 MiddleSchools HighSchools Day Boys
  • Aurora, Ontario
    St. John's Sideroad/Yonge Street
  • 5 to 12 Boys
  • $36,920 to $68,720

St. Andrew's College offers programs from grades 5 to 12 in Aurora. Its average class size is 17 students.

  • Boarding/Day
  • Traditional
St. Andrew's College 36920 MiddleSchools HighSchools Boarding Day Boys
  • Toronto, Ontario
    Bathurst St./St. Clair West
  • 7 to 12 Boys
  • $20,150

St. Michael's College School offers students in Grades 7-12 an enriched, Catholic, liberal arts education complemented by a diverse co-curricular programme.

  • Day
  • Liberal Arts
St. Michael's College School 20150 MiddleSchools HighSchools Day Boys
  • Vancouver, British Columbia
  • 8 to 12 Boys
  • $52,570 to $71,490

St. George's School in Vancouver offers university-preparatory program to Canadian and International boarding students from Grade 8 to 12. The School's mission: Building Fine Young Men. One Boy at a Time.

  • Boarding
  • Traditional
St. George's School 52570 HighSchools Boarding Boarding Boys
  • London, Ontario
    Richmond Street/King Street
  • 9 to 12 Boys/Girls/Coed
  • $11,000 to $41,900

A Canadian Private Secondary Co-ed Boarding school, located in downtown London, Ontario. LIA offers academic courses from Grades 9-12 and is authorized to grant the Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD).

  • Boarding/Day
  • Traditional
  • International Baccalaureate
London International Academy 11000 HighSchools Boarding Boarding Day Boys Girls Coed


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